VERIFIED EXCEL SHEET FOR BAR BENDING SCHEDULE (BBS) FOR FOOTING & COLUMN

“Feel the structure” MSA

This blog is for all all structural engineers who generally need to estimate quantity of reinforcement to justify whether design is economical or not.It will also help quantity surveyor(QS Engineer)

I am very much delighted to share you an excel sheet for bar bending schedule(BBS) which is a very helpful and handy tools for any structural engineer to evaluate whether design of structural members are under the limit of industry norms as far as wight of reinforcement in terms of Kg/sqft or Kg/m3.

In order to convinced client, we as a structural engineer need to furnish BBS so that client may agree with our design. In this excel sheet of BBS, i have shown an example for calculation for footing & column.I will upload BBS for slab and beams in my next blog.

Although BBS is done by Quantity Surveyor(QS) but we should also know it so that we can check BBS made by QS Engineer.

Now please find excel sheet for BBS from the below link.

Download Excel Sheet For BBS for Footing & Column

Thanks & regards!

MSA

GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS

“Feel the Structure” MSA

This blog is dedicated to those who is a beginner in the field of reinforced cement concrete.It will help them to gather key note for RCC design,detailing & site execution.

Before designing reinforced cement concrete(RCC) structural members, it is essential to know the environmental factors in which designed member will be exposed through out it’s life & second aspect for RCC design is it’s strength against shear, bending and torsion which depends upon the characteristics & quantity of its ingredient/components.

How environmental condition will affect proposed grade of concrete, it is mandatory to know the characteristics of different components ,water cement ratio & their proportion in mix design of concrete and reaction of C-H-S gel of concrete in green state & in hardened state with certain deleterious chemicals like chloride & sulphate.

Basically, concrete is made up of cement, sand , aggregate & water. When ingredient like cement, sand & aggregates are mixed with water in proper proportion , plain cement concrete is formed.This is usually called as PCC (Plain Cement Concrete).When reinforcement or rebar is cast along with PCC, then it is called as reinforced cement concrete (RCC) as reinforcement (rebar) reinforces flexural strength of concrte. It is well known fact and experimentally proved that PCC is weak in bending/flexure and strong in compression.Let say, if we are using M25 grade of concrete then this grade of concrete will have characteristic strength as 25N/mm2 which is compressive in nature. As per IS456-2000,flexural strength of M25 is 0.7x (sqaure root of grade of concrete) i.e 0.7X (25)^0.5= 3.5N/mm2. Now you can see, how flexural strength of concrete is much lower than compressive strength .

Hence, when you are asked to design RCC members, then your first priority shall be to calculate shear force and bending moment and accordingly you have to find out which fibre of concrete member is under tension and which one is under compression.On the basis of that, you need to place calculated reinforcement in terms of numbers or spacing to improve tensile strength of concrete. For example, a cantilever slab & beam will have top surface undergoing tension whereas bottom of same will be under compression.As we know that flexural/bending tensile strength of concrete is weak,hence,main reinforcement shall be placed at top whereas nominal reinforcement shall be at bottom of this slab as prescribed by code to control cracks. You can better understand from from the following images.

From above three images like,Fig-1,Fig-2 & Fig-3, i have walked you through the concept of tensile bending & how designed reinforcements are placed on tension face of RCC structural members. If you see Fig-1, which is a typical section for cantilever slab where main reinforcement has been placed at top face of concrete slab as top of this concrete slab is under tension/tensile bending whereas bottom slab is under compression.Hence, main reinforcement has placed at top face of slab whereas distribution bar has been placed at bottom face of slab.As a structural engineer, our main task is to calculate bending moment and accordingly reinforcements in terms of numbers or spacing are placed on tension face. Rest of distribution bars or binder bars(which are minimum) are placed as prescribed in standard code for concrete design to control cracks.

let us see Fig-2 which is a typical section for footing. In this case, when a column is subjected to load(Axial Load with uni- axial or bi-axial moment), a base pressure from soil will be generated in upward direction, hence bending of footing slab will start taking place in the same direction.Bottom face of this footing will be like parabolic curve in upward direction.Here, you can analog a footing as a inverted cantilever slab. Being bottom of footing in tension, main reinforcement has been placed at bottom. It is not mandatory to provide compression reinforcement at top of footing as it is in compression. However, we sometime provide nominal or minimum reinforcement prescribed in code to control cracks.

Now to understand better about tensile bending and placement of main reinforcement in tension area,i would refer you to see fig-3.In Fig-3, i have shown a typical detail of cantilever retaining wall in which two faces of wall have been shown.Left face is towards earth whereas right face is towards road side. As this retaining wall is a vertical cantilever, hence, left face will be in tension whereas right face will be in compression.As earth has retained in left side of this wall, force exerted by earth will try to bend wall in right direction creating tension in left face.Hence, main reinforcement has been placed in left face of the wall.Main reinforcement can be placed in both faces of wall only when free end (top of wall) is hinged or fixed.

Now to deal same concept in more detail, i have come up with Fig-4 ,which is a liquid retaining structure in which reinforcement in RCC wall has been shown in the both faces of wall as main reinforcement. If you see closely W-2 & W-3, same face of wall may be sometime in tension & sometime in compression depending upon whether tank is full or tank is empty. Hence, main reinforcement has been placed in both faces of wall.

Above discussion is all about the detailing part only as far as bending strength is concerned.But this is not enough.In order to have a safe,durable & aesthetically appealing structure we need to check certain codal provisions and criteria at design as well as at construction stage. Point wise these are explained below.

  • Grade of Concrete: As per the exposure of proposed structure throughout it’s life and to reduce section size in high rise buildings, grade of concrete is decided.For example, if you are going to design a marine structure then minimum grade of concrete shall be M30 as per IS:456-2000 whereas for any other structure, we can start our design with a minimum garde of M20. Apart from grade of concrete, water cement ratio shall be different in different component of same building like foundation, column,beams & slabs.Sometimes, soil having sulphate, sulphate resisting cement(SRC) is used instead of normal PPC( Portland Pozzolana Cement ) & OPC ( Ordinary Portland Cement ) for durability.As sulphate voluminize concrete up 300% after reacting with C-H-S gel(Complex hydration product of cement) & hence huge cracks are formed which are further source of deterioration of reinforcement & concrete.Furthermore,if there is high congestion of reinforcement and column sizes are big like (1.5m x 1.5m, 2m x 2m and so one),self compacting concrete is used to avoid mechanical vibrator as it will be very difficult to compact such a mass concrete. Also, self compacting or high flow concrete (which are also known as special concrete) is used when there is high congestion at junction of column & beams. In this case if normal concrete is used , then concrete will not be compacted properly even after using mechanical vibrator. This happens because it is very difficult to insert needle of mechanical vibrator inside heavily congested reinforcement and therefore, honey comb is formed.Due to formation of honey comb , strength of RCC member is reduced. If honey comb is formed due to slurry leakage, lack of compaction, improper mixing & placement,this shall be immediately repaired by injection grouting or any other approved method.

Above explanation on concrete was only on selection of concrete in design stage. Until & unless, proper mixing, placing and curing of concrete is done at site, we can not ascertain durability & strength.As bad quality of shuttering (leading to slurry leakage),improper placing & compaction will lead to the formation of honey comb. On the other hand, improper curing will lead to formation of weaker concrete in hardened state as hydration process will be completed because of lack of water.If we say,water is blood of concrete then it will not be an exaggerated statement.

Thanks & regards!

MSA

DOWNLOAD FREE EXCEL SHEET FOR THE DESIGN OF ISOLATED FOOTING

“Feel the structure” MSA

Hello Friends!

Here is the attachment of verified excel sheet based on IS 456-2000 for the design of isolated footing.

Download Excel for the design of isolated footing from below link.

DOWNLOAD EXCEL SHEET FOR THE DESIGN OF ISOLATED FOOTING

This is easiest way to work. Only you should put your inputs in the highlighted areas for  reactive forces, external moments and results for checking of footing for one way shear and punching will come in the same excel sheet. Also, reinforcement with diameter and spacing will be highlighted in the same sheet.

            You can see all calculation in the same excel sheet.

Download excel sheet for the design of isolated footing

Thanks & regards!

MSA

DOWNLOAD FREE EXCEL SHEET FOR THE DESIGN OF COMBINED FOOTING WITH EQUAL OVERHANG

“Feel the structure” MSA

Hello!

Dear friends, in continuation of previous blog in which i have shared one of the most valuable excel sheet for the design of isolated footing. Now i am going to share another most valuable excel sheet for the design of combined footing.It is verified.Just download it & enjoy.

Download Excel sheet for the design of Combined Footing for equal overhang 

                                                   In this sheet for the design of combined footing for equal over hang , analysis is shown in the same sheet & on the basis of analysis,design come automatically in the same sheet with BMD. As an input,you need to put reaction of two columns, centre to centre distance between two columns, SBC and rest of the out put like +ve and -ve moment,base pressure and thickness checking for one way and two way will  come automatically. Also, reinforcement detailing with diameter and spacing at bottom and top of footing will come automatically. Dude, enjoy working with this sheet.

                                                     Hey there,you will be surprised, why i am sharing verified design excel sheet. Because i want to help many young engineers who wants to make career as a structural engineer.Also, many working professional will get benefit from this.Whats wrong, if i believe in sharing valuable documents for which many working structural engineers and aspirants waste time searching for free excel sheet.Hey, guys, now you don’t need to waste time in searching for  free excel design sheet.In this world, no body will provide you free excel sheet.Every source will direct you to pay something for the download. Now you can download for free.

                                                      I believe in the fact, a leader’s work is to create more leaders.In this world of mediocrity, victim hood and criticism, even if a single person is  benefited in this world with this share, it will give me immense pleasure.

Guys, in this series, i will also upload, verified design excel sheet for pile and pile cap, anchor bolt & base plate. After this, foundation part will be completed.

                                                      After completing uploading design excel sheet for foundation, i will share you manual analysis tricks for analysis of deflection for various structural elements, RCC design of structural elements, various literature on earthquake and wind.

Download Excel sheet for the design of Combined Footing for equal overhang 

Thanks & regards!

MSA

EXCEL SHEET FOR THE DESIGN OF RCC BEAM AS PER IS456-2000 WITH DEFLECTION CHECK

“Feel the structure” MSA

This treasure having an attachment of excel sheet for the design of RCC beam with defection check with modification factors in IS456:2000 with empirical formula (Mentioned in SP-24) instead taking result from fig-4 &5 of IS456:2000 which is tedious and lot of interpolation is required. 

Dear friends and junior civil engineers who are aspiring to be a structural engineer. This excel sheet is for the design of beam with deflection check.

From below link, download excel sheet for design of beam with deflection check.

DOWNLOAD EXCEL SHEET FOR THE DESIGN OF BEAM WITH DEFLECTION CHECK AS PER IS-456-2000

                               

 This excel sheet is going to help many civil engineers entered or trying to make a career  in the field of structural engineering. It is also very helpful to many practicing structural engineers as well. In this attached sheet, you will find beam designed with deflection check with modification factors for tension and compression reinforcement. Normally in STAAD, you can find out deflection for any beam but that is not appropriate. STAAd give deflection with respect to stiffness only without considering the role of tension and compression reinforcement. But, here in this sheet you will find complete beam design with different check like singly or doubly reinforced beam, under or over reinforced beam along with deflection check with appropriate modification factors as per fig. 4& 5 in IS-456-2000.

                                My main aim is to bring treasure that is hidden in this sheet is to evaluate modification factor for tension and compression steel directly from this sheet rather than from figure No-4 & figure No-5. Calculating modification factors from fig-4 & 5 is quite seditious and we can’t correctly take value from this.

                                You can ask what innovation I have done to convert all those difficultly to simplicity. Actually I have used SP-24, an explanatory handbook on Indian Standard code of practice for Plain and reinforced concrete. There is an empirical formula on this explanatory handbook on basis of which graph for fig -4 & 5 has been developed in  IS 456:2000. I have used this empirical formula directly in the excel sheet. There is no need to do any interpolation.

                                Please download this and enjoy working with this. You need to put your input in highlighted area with yellow color. Results will come automatically in the same sheet.

                               This treasure having an attachment of excel sheet for the design of RCC beam with defection check with modification factors in IS456:2000 with empirical formula (Mentioned in SP-24) instead taking result from fig-4 &5 of IS456:2000 which is tedious and lot of interpolation is required. 

          Please enjoy with this sheet and download here in the below link. 

DOWNLOAD EXCEL SHEET FOR THE DESIGN OF BEAM WITH DEFLECTION CHECK AS PER IS-456-2000

Thanks & regards!

MSA

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRE-ENGINEERED STEEL BUILDING & CONVENTIONAL STEEL BUILDING

“Feel the structure” MSA

Hello friends!

Here i have tried to to provide you a key comparison between Pre -Engineered Steel Building(PEB) and Conventional Steel Building(CSB) and today’s dominance of using PEB over CSB and it can be more understood from the literature that i have explained with simple figures.

                        Now by reading this attached article showing difference between PEB & CSB, you will be easily understood, why people are more inclined to the structure which are to be built in PEB.

Please download from this below link.

Download pdf file on PEB Vs Conventional Steel Building

Thanks & regards!

MSA

DOWNLOAD EXCEL SHEET FOR THE DESIGN OF COMBINED FOOTING WITH UN-EQUAL OVERHANG

” Feel the structure” MSA

Hello!

Dear friends, in continuation of previous blog in which i have shared one of the most valuable excel sheet for the design of isolated footing. Now i am going to share another most valuable excel sheet for the design of combined footing.It is verified.Just download it & enjoy.

                                                   In this excel sheet for the design of combined footing for equal over hang,analysis is shown in the same sheet & on the basis of analysis,design come automatically in the same sheet with BMD. As an input,you need to put reaction of two columns, centre to centre distance between two columns, Safe Bearing Capacity (SBC) and rest of the out put like +ve and -ve moment,base pressure and thickness checking for one way and two way will  come automatically. Also, reinforcement detailing with diameter and spacing at bottom and top of footing will come automatically. Dude, enjoy working with this sheet.

Download PDF from below mentioned link.

DOWNLOAD FREE EXCEL SHEET FOR THE DESIGN OF COMBINED FOOTING WITH UN-EQUAL OVER HANG.

                                                     Hey there,you will be surprised, why i am sharing verified design excel sheet. Because i want to help many young engineers who wants to make career as a structural engineer.Also, many working professional will get benefit from this.Whats wrong, if i believe in sharing valuable documents for which many working structural engineers and aspirants waste time searching for free excel sheet.Hey, guys, now you don’t need to waste time in searching for  free excel design sheet.In this world, no body will provide you free excel sheet.Every source will direct you to pay something for the download. Now you can download for free.

                                                      I believe in the fact, a leader’s work is to create more leaders.In this world of mediocrity, victim hood and criticism, even if a single person is  benefited in this world with this share, it will give me immense pleasure.

Guys, in this series, i will also upload, verified design excel sheet for pile and pile cap, anchor bolt & base plate. After this, foundation part will be completed.

                                                      After completing uploading design excel sheet for foundation, i will share you manual analysis tricks for analysis of deflection for various structural elements, RCC design of structural elements, various literature on earthquake and wind.

DOWNLOAD FREE EXCEL SHEET FOR THE DESIGN OF COMBINED FOOTING WITH UN-EQUAL OVER HANG.

thanks & regards!

MSA

EXAMPLE ON DEFLECTION CALCULATION FOR CANTILEVER BEAM SUBJECTED TO TRIANGULAR LOAD,SERIES-2

“Feel the structure” MSA

Dear friends!

In Continuation to Series-1 for the deflection calculation for Cantilever beams, now i am going to share you with an example of cantilever beam subjected to to triangular loading.This series is titled as “Series-II” .As a structural engineer, you are always going to evaluate deflection calculation for vertical cantilever (assembling of  walls and columns) for earth and water retaining purpose.In that case, triangular loading is common. It’s calculation is quite easy. In this section too, i am going to solve an example with three standard methods like:

            1. Unit Load Method

            2. Moment Area Method

            3. Conjugate Beam Method

Download PDF from download pdf tab

DOWNLOAD PDF

            Whichever method is most suitable to you, adopt it accordingly. Although, many Structural Engineer know much in depth about it but i am sure this section is going  to bring them all to the basic and certainly they will find something very new in this.Also,it will help them to refresh their basic knowledge. Apart from this,this example is going to be a very big boost to the beginner. Actually in college days,civil engineers solve deflection for different loading but without knowing reason and practical application & they generally do not not know why there is a different loading pattern for different circumstances.Now they will understand, why they were used to solve numerical on triangular loading. Genuinely, at that time of academic level, purpose was not clear but after coming to practical field, they will understand,why it is essential to know application of different load patterns like point loads, uniformly distributed load, triangular load, trapezoidal load,concentrated moment etc.at different circumstances.

            I hope you will understand through this example. Please download attached example sheet for the same from below from download pdf.

Download PDF

Thanks & regards!

MSA

EXCEL SHEET FOR THE DESIGN OF ISOLATED FOOTING WITH ACTUAL SURCHARGE/EARTH FILLING LOAD

“Feel the structure” MSA

Dear Friend,

Here i am attaching a valuable excel sheet for the design of isolated footing with actual surcharge /earth filling weight calculated in the same sheet. Generally, as a designer, we take 10% of total axial load for self weight of footing and filling but when you will actually calculate surcharge/filling weight & self weight of footing, it will be 30% to 40% and in some cases it may even  be 50%.

        Hence, it is better to calculate self wight of footing and filling weight instead of taking it 10% of total axial load (1.1xP).

From here, download this excel sheet which will automatically take filling and self weight of footing when you put size and thickness of footing.

Download Excel Sheet for the design of Design of Isolated footing with actual surcharge /filling load.

Thanks & regards!

MSA